The Astronomical knowledge of Kemet
- The astronomical knowledge that emerged from Kemet was responsible for giving the world the calendar year of 365 days, the division of a circle into 360 segments and the designation of the second, minute and hour as measurments of time. The word hour is derived from the word Horus (Heru,) who was a Netcher associated with the sun. The right eye of Heru represents the sun and the time of day is determined by the position of the Earth relative to Heru (the sun). Various timekeeping devices, such as the tekhen, clepsydra and shadow clock, were developed to record the passage of time.
Below is a image of the oldest known tool used to survey the stars. It is now housed in the Berlin Museum. The plumb line (A) was attached to a handle and the other instrument (B) was held over a designated point on the ground while the astronomer viewed through the slit at the top toward a celestial body. While looking over a rod, which was held between the observer and the observed object, until the rod was aligned with the object, the scientist could determine the exact meridian and observe each star that crossed it, This process allowed for the precise measuring of time and led to the development of accurate star maps and other celestial data.