​-        Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb (North Africa), lberian Peninsula, Sicily (Italy), and malta, 711 AD – 1492 AD

-        Occupied Mazara, on Sicily, developing a port in 827.

-        Intellectual achievements of the Moors in Spain had lasting effects; when Europe had tow universities, the Moors had seventeen.

-        During the 10th century, Cordoba not just the capital of Al Andalus, but also one of the most important cities on the world; had street lighting, 50 hospitals with running water, 300 public baths, 500 Mosques, and 70 libraries.

-        Held extensive knowledge of irrigation and cultivation of crops.